Tuesday, March 8, 2016

SCALES AND HOW THEY WORK

SCALES ARE MOVEABLE

Any scale, or mode, for that matter, are built on intewrvals, or the distance beween notes.  On a fretboard, these intervals are called steps.  A half step is equal to the distance of one fret space.  A whole step is equal to the distance of two fret spaces.    This is why scales are moveable, meaning you can move the entire scale shape up or down the fretboard, and move the shape from one key to another, and the intervals between the notes stay the same.  Here is an example of the minor pentatonic scale in the key of A;
e____________________________________________5___8___
b____________________________________5___8___________
g____________________________5___7___________________
d____________________5___7___________________________
a____________5___7___________________________________
e____(5)__8___________________________________________

Now compare the distance or intervals between notes on this scale in the key of a to the same scale, but now in the key of G below.

e_____________________________________________3___6___
b_____________________________________3___6___________
g_____________________________3___5___________________
d_____________________3___5___________________________
a_____________3___5___________________________________
e____(3)___6___________________________________________

It is the exact same distance between notes, we simply moved the shape of the scale - and this is how you move a scale from key to key anywhere on the fretboard.  It doesn't matter what the scale is, they are moveable, just like this one.  This is why you will sometimes hear someone say, once you learn one scale, you have learned 12 scales.  From the open position at the nut to the 12th fret, you have 12 different keys you play any given scale in, simply by sliding the shape around.  From the 12 fret up to the body of the guitar all your notes along the fretboard simply repeat themselves, one octave higher.  Pluck the low e (thick string) without fretting the string, you have an E note.  Fret the same string at the 12th fret, you have the same E note, one octave higher.

On the first example above, on the scale you will notice the note (5).  This is the root note of that scale, the 5th fret of the low E string being an A note makes the scale an A minor pentatonic.  On example 2, the scale shape was moved, and the new root note became (3), or G minor pentatonic, since the note at the 3rd fret of the low E string is a G note.  Sometimes you will see these referred to as box positions.  The A note of the minor pentatonic scale is located on the 5th fret, so this would be considered  the 5th position, or 5th box position.  The G root note is located on the 3rd fret, so this now becomes the 3rd position.

It's often times called playing within a box because of the distance or intervals between all the notes within that scale shape.  All the notes can be easily reached without having to move or slide your hand up or down the fretboard.  The only problem with playing within a box position is that over time, as you advance as a player, it becomes limited as to what you can do in such a small area of the fretboard.  This is where long scales can come into play.  They contain the same notes as the box positions, but they cover a much wider range of the fretboard.  And yes, long scales are moveable as well.  Here is an example of the A minor pentatonic scale in the key of A, long version.

e____________________________________________10__12__15__17__
b_________________________________8__10__13__________________
g__________________________7__9______________________________
d_______________5__7__10_____________________________________
a_________5__7_______________________________________________
e__(5)__8_____________________________________________________

Now here is the same moveable scale but now in the key of G

e______________________________________________8__10__13__15__
b___________________________________6__8__11__________________
g____________________________5__7_____________________________
d__________________3__5__8____________________________________
a___________3__5______________________________________________
e____(3)__6____________________________________________________

As you can see, long scales really do open up the fretboard, but they do take longer to learn.  And with long scales, you now have to move your fretting hand up and down the neck as you move from note to note.  One way to move around quickly within a long scale is to slide up to some of your notes.  Just as a quick example, you could take the notes on the B string, and pluck the 6th, slide up to the 8, and hammer onto the 11.

For the serious and more advanced player, even long scales become limiting, and they want a little added color or tone to the scale.  Many dress up a scale, and there are many ways of doint this.  One way is to take two scales and mix some of the notes together, to come up with a completely new scale, their own creation.  But if you are not that advanced or simply starting out, the better route would be to do a much easier dressing up of a scale by simply adding one, maybe two notes from outside the scale you are using.  Which notes to add?  That is where being creative comes into play, and different players will add different notes.  Use this as your rule - if you play your scale with the added note and it sounds good, then go with it.

GUITAR SCALES FOR OPEN G TUNING

MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE - KEY OF A

d______________________________________5___(7)___
b_________________________________5_____________
g__________________________5__7_________________
d__________________5__(7)________________________
g________5__7__9________________________________
d___(7)__________________________________________



MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE  -  KEY OF C

d_____________________________________________8___(10)___
b_________________________________________8_____________
g________________________________8___10_________________
d______________________8___(10)__________________________
g_________8___10__12____________________________________
d____(10)_________________________________________________



MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE  -  KEY OF D

d____________________________________________________10___(12)___
b_______________________________________________10_____________
g_____________________________________10___12___________________
d__________________________10___(12)_____________________________
g___________10___12___14________________________________________
d_____(12)_______________________________________________________



MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE  -  KEY OF E

d____________________________________________0____(2)____
b_______________________________________0_______________
g_______________________________0___2___________________
d______________________0___(2)___________________________
g__________0___2___4____________________________________
d_____(2)________________________________________________



MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE  -  KEY OF G

d______________________________________________3___(5)___
b_________________________________________3_____________
g________________________________3___5__________________
d______________________3___(5)___________________________
g__________3___5___7____________________________________
d_____(5)________________________________________________



BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE  -  IN OPEN G TUNING


BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE - KEY OF A

d__________________________________________________5___(7)___
b_____________________________________________5_____________
g_________________________________5___7___8_________________
d_______________________5___(7)______________________________
g_________5__7__8__9________________________________________
d____(7)_____________________________________________________



BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE - KEY OF C

d_____________________________________________________8___(10)___
b_________________________________________________8_____________
g_____________________________________8__10__11_________________
d___________________________8___(10)_____________________________
g__________8___10__12__13_______________________________________
d____(10)________________________________________________________



BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE - KEY OF D

d_______________________________________________________10___(12)___
b__________________________________________________10______________
g_____________________________________10__12__13___________________
d___________________________10__(12)________________________________
g__________10__12__14__15__________________________________________
d____(12)____________________________________________________________



BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE - KEY OF E

d_______________________________________________0___(2)___
b___________________________________________0______________
g_______________________________0___2___3__________________
d______________________0___(2)______________________________
g_________0__2__4__5_______________________________________
d____(2)____________________________________________________



BLUES PENTATONIC SCALE  - KEY FO G

d__________________________________________________3___(5)___
b______________________________________________3____________
g__________________________________3___5___6________________
d_________________________3___(5)____________________________
g_________3___5___7___8_____________________________________
d____(5)_____________________________________________________

SLIDING SCALE FOR LEAD GUITAR

SLIDING SCALE - key og G
e_________________________________________________________10___12 / (15)__
b___________________________________________(8)___10 / 12_________________
g___________________________________7___9______________________________
d_______________________(5)___7 / 9______________________________________
a_______________5___7__________________________________________________
e____(3)__5 / 7__________________________________________________________



SLIDING SCALE  -  key of A
e_____________________________________________________________12__14 / (17)__
b______________________________________________(10)___12 / 14________________
g_____________________________________9___11_______________________________
d________________________(7)___9 / 11________________________________________
a________________7___9_____________________________________________________
e____(5)___7 / 9_____________________________________________________________



SLIDING SCALE  -  key of C
e____________________________________________________________15__17 / (20)__
b_______________________________________________(13)__15 / 17_______________
g______________________________________12___14____________________________
d_________________________(10)__12 / 14_____________________________________
a________________10__12___________________________________________________
e___(8)___10 / 12___________________________________________________________

SLIDING SCALE  -  key of D
e________________________________________________________________17__19 / (22)_
b___________________________________________________(15)__17 / 19______________
g_________________________________________14___16____________________________
d___________________________(12)__14 / 16______________________________________
a_________________12___14____________________________________________________
e___(10)__12 / 14______________________________________________________________



SLIDING SCALE  -  key of E
e_______________________________________________________________19__21 / (24)__
b__________________________________________________(17)__19 / 21_______________
g________________________________________16___18_____________________________
d__________________________(14)__16 / 18_______________________________________
a________________14___16_____________________________________________________
e___(12)__14 / 16______________________________________________________________

 /  means to slide up from one note to the next.

MEXOLYDIAN MODE

MEXOLYDIAN  MODE  - key of A
e______________________________________________________________(5)___7___9___
b__________________________________________________5___7___8________________
g______________________________________4___6___7____________________________
d_________________________4___5___(7)________________________________________
a_____________4___5___7_____________________________________________________
e____(5)___7_________________________________________________________________



MEXOLYDIAN  MODE  - key of C
e________________________________________________________________(8)__10__12_
b______________________________________________________8__10__11____________
g_________________________________________7___9___10________________________
d___________________________7___8___(10)_____________________________________
a______________7___8___10___________________________________________________
e____(8)___10________________________________________________________________



 MEXOLYDIAN  MODE  - key of D
e________________________________________________________________(10)__12__14_
b____________________________________________________10__12__13______________
g________________________________________9__11__12___________________________
d___________________________9__10__(12)_______________________________________
a______________9__10___12____________________________________________________
e____(10)__12_________________________________________________________________



MEXOLYDIAN  MODE  - key of E
e__________________________________________________________________(12)__14__16
b______________________________________________________12__14__15_____________
g________________________________________11__13__14___________________________
d__________________________11__12__(14)________________________________________
a_____________11__12__14______________________________________________________
e___(12)__14___________________________________________________________________



MEXOLYDIAN  MODE  - key of G
e______________________________________________________________(3)___5___7__
b__________________________________________________3___5___6_______________
g______________________________________2___4___5___________________________
d_________________________2___3___(5)_______________________________________
a_____________2___3___5____________________________________________________
e____(3)___5________________________________________________________________

LYDIAN MODE

LYDIAN  MODE  - key of A
e__________________________________________________________4___(5)___7___
b______________________________________________4___5___7________________
g______________________________________4___6____________________________
d_________________________4___6___(7)____________________________________
a_____________4___6___7_________________________________________________
e____(5)___7_____________________________________________________________

e

LYDIAN  MODE  - key of C
e_____________________________________________________________7__(8)__10__
b_________________________________________________7___8___10_____________
g_________________________________________7___9__________________________
d___________________________7___9___(10)__________________________________
a______________7___9___10________________________________________________
e____(8)___10_____________________________________________________________



LYDIAN  MODE  - key of D
e__________________________________________________________9___(10)___12__
b______________________________________________9__10__12_________________
g______________________________________9__11_____________________________
d_________________________9__11__(12)_____________________________________
a_____________9__11__12__________________________________________________
e___(10)__12______________________________________________________________



LYDIAN  MODE  - key of E
e________________________________________________________________11__(12)__14
b___________________________________________________11__12__14______________
g_________________________________________11___13___________________________
d___________________________11__13__(14)_____________________________________
a______________11__13__14___________________________________________________
e____(12)__14________________________________________________________________



LYDIAN  MODE  - key of G
e__________________________________________________________2___(3)___5___
b______________________________________________2___3___5________________
g______________________________________2___4____________________________
d_________________________2___4___(5)____________________________________
a_____________2___4___5_________________________________________________
e____(3)___5_____________________________________________________________

ACOLIAN MODE

ACOLIAN  MODE  - key of A
e______________________________________________________________(5)___7___8___
b__________________________________________________5___6___8________________
g______________________________________4___5___7____________________________
d_____________________________5___(7)________________________________________
a_________________5___7___8_________________________________________________
e____(5)___7___8_____________________________________________________________



ACOLIAN  MODE  - key of C
e_____________________________________________________________(8)__10__11__
b__________________________________________________8__9__11_______________
g_______________________________________7__8__10__________________________
d_____________________________8___(10)_____________________________________
a_________________8__10__11_______________________________________________
e____(8)__10__11___________________________________________________________



ACOLIAN  MODE  - key of D
e_________________________________________________________________(10)__12__13_
b____________________________________________________10__11__13________________
g_________________________________________9__10__12____________________________
d______________________________10___(12)_______________________________________
a_________________10__12__13___________________________________________________
e___(10)__12__13_______________________________________________________________



ACOLIAN  MODE  - key of  E
e___________________________________________________________________(12)__14__15
b______________________________________________________12__13__15______________
g_________________________________________11__12__14___________________________
d______________________________12___(14)________________________________________
a_________________12__14__15___________________________________________________
e___(12)__14__15________________________________________________________________



ACOLIAN  MODE  - key of G
e______________________________________________________________(3)___5___6__
b__________________________________________________3___4___6_______________
g______________________________________2___3___5___________________________
d_____________________________3___(5)_______________________________________
a_________________3___5___6________________________________________________
e____(3)___5___6____________________________________________________________

LOCRIAN MODE

LOCRIAN MODE - key of A
e____________________________________________________________(5)___6___8___
b________________________________________________4___6___8________________
g________________________________________5___7____________________________
d___________________________5___(7)___8___________________________________
a__________________5___6___8_____________________________________________
e____(5)___6____8_________________________________________________________



LOCRIAN MODE  - key of C
e____________________________________________________________(8)__9__11__
b_________________________________________________7__9__11______________
g________________________________________8___10_________________________
d___________________________8__(10)__11__________________________________
a________________8__9__11_______________________________________________
e____(8)__9__11__________________________________________________________



LOCRIAN MODE  - key of D
e________________________________________________________________(10)__11__13
b_____________________________________________________9__11__13____________
g____________________________________________10__12_________________________
d______________________________10__(12)__13_________________________________
a_________________10__11__13_______________________________________________
e___(10)__11__13____________________________________________________________



LOCRIAN  MODE  - key of E
e________________________________________________________________(12)__13__15
b____________________________________________________11__13__15_____________
g____________________________________________12__14_________________________
d______________________________12__(14)__15__________________________________
a_________________12__13__15________________________________________________
e___(12)__13__15_____________________________________________________________



LOCRIAN  MODE - key of G
e______________________________________________________________(3)___4___6__
b__________________________________________________2___4___6_______________
g__________________________________________3___5___________________________
d_____________________________3___(5)___6___________________________________
a_________________3___4___6________________________________________________
e____(3)___4___6____________________________________________________________